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Jal Boeing

JAL EXPRESS Boeing 737-800 - Okayama Airport【OKJ/RJOB】 -

Delta Air Lines Flight 191   by jekky

Aircraft

A Delta Air Lines L-1011

The airplane used on that day was N726DA, a Lockheed L-1011-385-1 TriStar, a workhorse in Delta's fleet at the time. The flight was piloted by Captain Edward "Ted" Conners, First Officer Rudolph Price and Second Officer Nick Nassick.

Crash

NTSB map indicating locations of passengers according to lack of injury, types of injuries, and deaths

As the aircraft flew over Louisiana, a thunderstorm formed directly in its path. The aircraft began its descent procedures over Louisiana, heading over the planned descent route. Captain Conners then recognized the forming thunderstorm and took action to change the plane's heading to avoid the turbulent weather.

At Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, weather was also poor and an isolated thunderstorm developed near DFW. The Captain and copilot noticed the isolated storm ahead, but decided to proceed through it anyway, which resulted in the aircraft getting caught up in a microburst.

At about 1500 feet above ground level (460 m), First Officer Price (as heard in the cockpit voice recorder) reported seeing lightning in one of the clouds ahead.

At 800 feet (240 m) above ground level, the airspeed increased without crew intervention. Although the aircraft was supposed to land at 149 knots IAS (276 km/h), its airspeed instead increased to 173 knots IAS (320 km/h). Price tried to stabilize the aircraft's speed, but Conners had recognized the aircraft's speed increase as a sign of wind shear, and he warned Price to watch the speed. Conners told Price, "you're going to lose it all of a sudden, there it is." Suddenly, the airspeed dropped from 173 to 133 knots IAS (320 to 246 km/h), and Price pushed the throttles forward, giving temporary lift. The airspeed then suddenly dropped to 119 knots IAS (220 km/h); on the cockpit voice recording Conners can be heard saying "Hang on to the son of a bitch!" In addition to the sudden tailwind, the aircraft also experienced a downdraft of more than 30 feet per second. This downdraft would reverse itself several times over the final moments of the flight.

As Price struggled to maintain control of the aircraft through rapidly changing wind conditions, it was hit by a sudden sideward gust, causing a rapid roll to the right and an increase in the aircraft's angle of attack. Price attempted to regain control by pushing the aircraft's nose down to avoid a stall, but the severe wind conditions continued to force the airplane towards the ground. Its descent rate reached 5,000 feet per minute at 280 feet above ground level. Price pulled the aircraft's nose up forcefully just before impact as the captain called "TOGA" ("Take Off/Go Around"), reducing the airplane's descent rate to 10 feet per second at the initial touchdown.

Delta Flight 191 first struck the ground on a field about 6,300 feet north of the approach end of runway 17L and bounced back into the air. Then, while crossing State Highway 114, it came down again, with an engine striking a black 1971 Toyota Celica vehicle, killing its occupant, William Hodge Mayberry. The aircraft also struck a highway light pole near its wing root, igniting the wing fuel tank, before skidding onto the airfield in Irving, colliding with two 4-million US gallon (15,000 m) water tanks at a speed of 220 knots, and exploding into flames. Most of the survivors of Flight 191 were located in the rear section of the aircraft, which broke free from the main fuselage before the aircraft hit the water tanks.

Most of the survivors sat in the smoking section. Authorities took most of the survivors to Parkland Memorial Hospital.

Two of the passengers who initially survived the impact died more than 30 days after the accident. On the ground, an airline employee who assisted the rescue of the passengers became hospitalized overnight after feeling chest and arm pains.

Delta Air Lines Flight 191 has the second highest death toll of any aviation accident involving a Lockheed L-1011 anywhere in the world after Saudia Flight 163.

Investigation

After a lengthy investigation, the National Transportation Safety Board deemed the cause of the crash to be attributable to pilot error, combined with extreme weather phenomena associated with microburst-induced wind shear.

The NTSB attributed the accident to lack of the ability to detect microbursts aboard aircraft; the radar equipment aboard aircraft at the time was unable to detect wind changes, only thunderstorms. After the investigation, NASA researchers at Langley Research Center modified a Boeing 737 as a testbed for an on-board Doppler weather radar. The resultant airborne wind shear detection and alert system was installed on many commercial airliners in the United States after the FAA mandated that all commercial aircraft must have on-board windshear detection systems.

Legacy

The crash of Delta Flight 191 was later the subject of a television movie called Fire and Rain.

The crash of Delta Flight 191 was also shown on an episode of When Weather Changed History on The Weather Channel and in a British air accident series known as Black Box (Deadly Weather) from Channel 4.

"Slammed to the Ground" of Mayday (Air Crash Investigation or Air Emergency) on Discovery Channel Canada and National Geographic dramatized the disaster.

The flight number "191" has been associated with numerous crashes and incidents over the years, including the deadliest crash in United States History. It has even prompted some airlines to stop the use of this number. See flight 191 for more information.

Passengers

Don Estridge, known to the world as the father of the IBM PC, died aboard this flight along with his wife, Mary Ann, two IBM summer interns, and six additional family members of IBM employees.

See also

Dallas-Fort Worth portal

Aviation portal

Microburst

Lists of accidents and incidents on commercial airliners

Air safety

Flight 191

Pan Am Flight 759

References

^ a b Magnuson, Ed (18 April 2005). "Like a Wall of Napalm". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1050423-2,00.html. 

^ a b "Aircraft Accident Report". National Transportation Safety Board. http://www.airdisaster.com/reports/ntsb/AAR86-05.pdf. 

^ "Probable Cause of Delta Air Lines Flight 191 Crash". National Transportation Safety Board. http://ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20001214X37434. Retrieved 2006-08-27. 

^ Wallace, Lane E. ""The Best That We Can Do":Taming the Microburst Windshear". Airborne Trailblazer. NASA. http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/trailblazer/SP-4216/chapter5/ch5.html. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 

^ "Slammed To The Ground." Mayday.

^ Sanger, David E. "PHILIP ESTRIDGE DIES IN JET CRASH; GUIDED IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER." The New York Times. August 5, 1985. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.

External links

Cockpit Voice Recorder transcript

Accident photos

AirDisaster.com Special Report

Pre-accident photos from Airliners.net

DFW Delta Flight 191 - Essay from Mica Calfee, a firefighter-paramedic who responded to the crash

NTSB executive summary report

"Like a Wall of Napalm"

Delta 191 In Their Words

Advertisement for animations used in court

Delta Flight 191 Approach and Crash - 2 Aug 1985 at YouTube YouTube link states "This video is no longer available due to a copyright claim by Z-Axis."

Animation of the crash, indicating wind vectors and synchronized to voice recorder data (description here)

The crash of Flight 1141/Crash resurrects memories of 1985

Vanderbilt Television News Archive

Coordinates: 325506 970125 / 32.91833N 97.02361W / 32.91833; -97.02361

v  d  e

1984 Aviation accidents and incidents in 1985 1986

Eastern Air Lines Flight 980 (January 1)  Galaxy Airlines Flight 203 (January 21)  China Airlines Flight 006 / Iberia Airlines Flight 610 (February 19)  Polar 3 (February 24)  Aeroflot Flight SSSR-65856 (May 3)  TWA Flight 847 (June 14)  Braathens SAFE Flight 139 (June 21)  Air India Flight 182 (June 23)  Air India Flight 301 (June 23)  Aeroflot Flight 7425 (July 10)  Delta Air Lines Flight 191 (August 2)  Japan Airlines Flight 123 (August 12)  British Airtours Flight 28M (August 22)  Bar Harbor Airlines Flight 1808 (August 25)  Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105 (September 6)  EgyptAir Flight 648 (November 23)  Arrow Air Flight 1285 (December 12)

Bold blue indicates incidents resulting at least 50 deaths  Red indicates the deadliest incident in 1985

v  d  e

Aviation accidents covered in Mayday/Air Crash Investigation/Air Emergency episodes

Season 1

American 1420  United 811  Air Transat 236  Swissair 111  Aeroper 603  Alaska 261

Season 2

British Airways 5390  ASA 529  Air France 8969  Bashkirian 2937 and DHL 611  American 965  Avianca 52

Season 3

Aloha 243  DHL OO-DLL  JAL 123  FedEx 705  Iran Air 655  Philippine 434  Bristow 56C  EgyptAir 990  Aeroflot 593  Ethiopian 961

Season 4

Air France 358  British Airways 9  Air Canada 797  Korean Air 801  United 585 / USAir 427 / Eastwind 517  China Airlines 006  Aeromxico 498  USAF 21  Flash 604  Helios 522

Season 5

Air Midwest 5481  American 96 / Turkish 981  Air Canada 143  Delta 191  Southern 242  South African 295  Air India 182  Birgenair 301  Eastern 401  GOL 1907 and ExcelAir N600XL

Season 6

Pan Am 103  Saudia 763 and Air Kazakhstan 1907  China Airlines 611  Partnair 394  Operation Babylift  Tuninter 1153  Adam Air 574  American Eagle 4184

Season 7

British Airtours 28M  Air France 296  Northwest 255  USAir 1493 and Skywest 5569  Korean Air Lines 007  Air Ontario 1363  Air Inter 148  Northwest 5

Categories: Accidents and incidents on commercial airliners in the United States | Airliner crashes caused by microburst | Aviation accidents and incidents officially attributed to pilot error | 1985 meteorology | Aviation accidents and incidents in 1985 | 1985 in the United States | Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex | Delta Air Lines flights | Disasters in Texas | Irving, Texas | Accidents and incidents involving the Lockheed L-1011

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